Chapter 4 – The Second Level of Reading: Inspectional Reading (part 2 of 2)

ON READING SPEEDS

Our point is really very simple. Many books are hardly worth even skimming; some should be read quickly; and a few should be read at a rate, usually quite slow, that allows for complete comprehension.

With regard to rates of reading, then, the ideal is not merely to be able to read faster, but to be able to read at different speeds – and to know when the different speeds are appropriate. Inspectional reading is accomplished quickly, but that is not only because you read faster, although in fact you do; it is also because you read less of a book when you give it an inspectional reading, and because you read it in a different way, with different goals in mind.  Analytical reading is ordinarily much slower than inspectional reading, but even when you are giving a book an analytical reading, you should not read all of it at the same rate of speed. Every book, no matter how difficult, contains interstitial material that can be and should be read quickly; and every good book also contains matter that is difficult and should be read very slowly.

FIXATIONS AND REGRESSIONS

Speed reading courses properly make much of the discovery that most people continue to sub-vocalize for years after they are first taught to read. Films of eye movements, furthermore, show that the eyes of young or untrained readers “fixate” as many as five or six times in the course of each line that is read. (The eye is blind while it moves; it can only see when it stops) … Even worse than that, the eyes of incompetent readers regress as often as once every two or three lines – that is, they return to phrases or sentences previously read.

All of these habits are wasteful and obviously cut down reading speed. They are wasteful because the mind, unlike the eye, does not need to “read” only a word or short phrase a time. The mind, that astounding instrument, can grasp a sentence or even a paragraph at a “glance” – if only the eyes will provide it with the information it needs. … Once it is done, the student can read as fast as his mind will let him, not as slow as his eyes make him.

Place your thumb and first two fingers together. Sweep this “pointer” across a line of type, a little faster than it is comfortable for your eyes to move. Force yourself to keep up with your hand. You will very soon be able to read the words as you follow your hand. Keep practicing this, and keep increasing the speed at which your hand moves, and before you know it you will have doubled or trebled your reading speed.

THE PROBLEM OF COMPREHENSION

But what exactly have you gained if you increase your reading speed significantly? It is true that you have saved time – but what about comprehension?

Concentration is another name for what we have called activity in reading. The good reader reads actively, with concentration.

But concentration alone does not really have much of an effect on comprehension, when that is properly understood. … This limited kind of comprehension, in fact, is nothing but the elementary ability to answer the question about a book or other reading material: “What does it say?”

To make this clearer, let us take an example of something to read. Let us take the Declaration of Independence. … It occupies less than three pages when printed. How fast should you read it?

The second paragraph of the Declaration ends with the sentence: “To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.” The following two pages of “facts,” can be read quickly.  It is not necessary to gain more than a general idea of the kind of facts that Jefferson is citing, unless, of course, you are a scholar concerned with the historical circumstances in which he wrote. Even the last paragraph … can be read quickly. This is a rhetorical flourish, and it deserves what mere rhetoric always deserves. But the first two paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence require more than a first rapid reading.

We doubt there is anyone who can read those first two paragraphs at a rate much faster than 20 words a minute. Indeed, individual words in the famous second paragraph – words like “inalienable,” “rights,” “liberty,” “happiness,” “consent,” “just powers” – are worth dwelling over, puzzling about, considering at length. Properly read, for full comprehension, those first two paragraphs of the Declaration might require days, or weeks, or even years.

The problem of speed reading, then, is the problem of comprehension. Practically, this comes down to defining comprehension at levels beyond the elementary.  It is worth emphasizing, therefore, that it is precisely comprehension in reading that this book seeks to improve. You cannot comprehend a book without reading it analytically.

SUMMARY OF INSPECTIONAL READING

Every book should be read no more slowly that it deserves, and no more quickly than you can read it with satisfaction and comprehension.

Skimming or pre-reading a book is always a good idea; it is necessary when you do not know whether the book you have in hand is worth reading carefully.

Finally, do not try to understand every word or page of a difficult book the first time through.

However, you should keep in mind during our discussion of the third level of reading – analytical reading – that inspectional reading serves an important function at that level, too. The two stages of inspectional reading can both be thought of as anticipations of steps that the reader takes when he reads analytically.

Chapter 4 – The Second Level of Reading: Inspectional Reading (part 1 of 2)

  1. THE SECOND LEVEL OF READING: INSPECTIONAL READING (part 1 of 2)

The first thing to realize is that there are two types of inspectional reading. They are aspects of a single skill, but the beginning reader is well-advised to consider them as two different steps or activities. The experienced reader learns to perform both steps simultaneously, but for the moment we will treat them as if they were different.

INSPECTIONAL READING I: Systematic Skimming or Pre-reading

Let us assume two further elements in this situation, … First, you do not know whether you want to read the book. You do not know whether it deserves analytical reading. Second, let us assume that you have only limited time in which to find all this out.

In this case, what you must do is skim the book, or, as some prefer to say, pre-read it. … You may discover that what you get from skimming is all the book is worth to you for the time being. …  But you will know at least what the author’s main contention is, as well as what kind of book he has written, so the time you have spent looking through the book will not have been wasted.

  1. LOOK AT THE TITLE PAGE AND, IF THE BOOK HAS ONE, AT ITS PREFACE. Read each quickly. … Before completing this step you should have a good idea of the subject, and, … What pigeonhole that already contains other books does this one belong in?
  2. STUDY THE TABLE OF CONTENTS to obtain a general sense of the book’s structure; use it as you would a road map before taking a trip.
  3. CHECK THE INDEX. Make a quick estimate of the range of topics covered and the kinds of books and authors referred to. When you see terms listed that seem crucial, look up at least some of the passages cited. (We will have must more to say about crucial terms in Part Two. Here you must make your judgment of their importance on the basis of your general sense of the book, as obtain from steps 1 and 2). The passages you read may contain the crux – the point on which the book hinges – or the new departure which is the key to the author’s approach and attitude.
  4. READ THE PUBLISHER’S BLURB. It is not uncommon for the authors to try to summarize as accurately as they can the main points in their book. Of course, if the blurb is nothing but a puff for the book, you will ordinarily be able to discover this at a glance. But that in itself can tell you something about the work

Upon completing these first four steps you may already have enough information about the book to know that you want to read it more carefully, or that you do not want or need to read it at all. … You are now ready to skim the book, properly speaking.

  1. LOOK NOW AT THE CHAPTERS THAT SEEM TO BE PIVOTAL TO ITS ARGUMENT. If these chapters have summary statements in their opening or closing pages, as they often do, read these statements carefully.
  2. TURN THE PAGES, DIPPING IN HERE AND THERE, READING A PARAGRAPH OR TWO, SOMETIMES SEVERAL PAGES IN SEQUENCE, NEVER MORE THAN THAT. Thumb through the book in this way, always looking for signs of the main contention, listening for the basic pulsebeat of the matter. Above all, do not fail to read the last two or three pages of the main part of the book. Few authors are able to resist the temptation to sum up what they think is new and important about their work in these pages.

You have now skimmed the book systematically; you have given it the first type of inspectional reading. You should know a good deal about the book at this point, after having spent … at most an hour with it. In particular, you should know whether the book contains matter that you still want to dig out, or whether it deserves no more of your time and attention. You should also be able to place the book even more accurately than before in your mental card catalogue.

Incidentally, this is a very active sort of reading. It is impossible to give any book an inspectional reading without being alert, without having all of one’s faculties awake and working. How many times have you daydreamed through several pages of good book only to wake up to the realization that you have no idea of the ground you have gone over? That cannot happen if you follow the steps outlined here – that is, if you have a system for following a general thread.

You will be surprised to find out how much time you will save, pleased to see how much more you will grasp, and relieved to discover how much easier it all can be than you supposed.

INSPECTIONAL READING II: Superficial Reading

Approached in the right way, no book intended for the general reader, no matter how difficult, need be a cause for despair.

What is the right approach? … That rule is simply this: In tackling a difficult book for the first time, read it through without ever stopping to look up or ponder the things you do not understand right away.

Pay attention to what you can understand and do not be stopped by what you cannot immediately grasp. Go right on reading past the point where you have difficulties in understanding, and you will soon come to things you do understand. Concentrate on these. Read the book through, undeterred and undismayed by the paragraphs, footnotes, comments, and references that escape you. If you let yourself get stalled, you are lost. In most cases, you will not be able to puzzle the thing out by sticking to it. You will have a much better chance of understanding it on a second reading, but that requires you to have read the book through at least once.

Most of us were taught to pay attention to the things we did not understand. We were told to go to an encyclopedia or some other reference work when we were confronted with allusions or statements we did not comprehend. … but when these things are done prematurely, they only impede our reading, instead of helping it.

If you insist on understanding everything on every page before you go on to the next, you will not get very far. In your effort to master the fine points, you will miss the big points. … You will not be reading wall on any level.

 

Chapter 3 – The First Level of Reading: Elementary Reading

  1. THE FIRST LEVEL OF READING: ELEMENTARY READING

No aspect of schooling has been more severely criticized than reading instruction.

A young man or woman who cannot read very well is hindered in his pursuit of the American dream, but that remains largely a personal matter if he is not in school.

STAGES OF LEARNING TO READ

It is now widely accepted that there are at least four more or less clearly distinguishable stages in the child’s progress toward what is called mature reading ability. The first stage is known by the term “reading readiness.” This begins at birth, and continues normally until the age of about six or seven.

Reading readiness includes several different kinds of preparation for learning to read.  Physical readiness involves good vision and hearing. Intellectual readiness involves a minimum level of visual perception such that the child can take in and remember an entire word and the letters that combine to form it. Language readiness involves the ability to speak clearly and to use several sentences in correct order. Personal readiness involves the ability to work with other children, to sustain attention, to follow directions, and the like.

In the second stage, children learn to read very simple materials. … Basic skills are introduced at this time, such as the use of context or meaning clues and the beginning sounds of words.

It is incidentally worth observing that something quite mysterious, almost magical, occurs during this stage. At one moment in the course of his development the child, when faced with a series of symbols on a page, finds them quite meaningless. Not much later – perhaps only two or three weeks later – he has discovered meaning in them; he knows that they say “the cat sat on the hat.” How this happens no one really knows, despite the efforts of philosophers and psychologists over two and a half millennia to study the phenomenon. Where does meaning come from? How is it that a French child would find the same meaning in the symbols “le chat s’asseyait sur le chapeau”? Indeed, this discovery of meaning in symbols may be the most astounding intellectual feat that any human being ever performs – and most humans perform it before they are seven years old!

The third stage is characterized by rapid progress in vocabulary building and by increasing skill in “unlocking” the meaning of unfamiliar words through context clues.

Finally, the fourth stage is characterized by the refinement and enhancement of the skills previously acquired. … This, the mature stage of reading should be reached by young persons in their early teens. Ideally, they should continue to build on it for the rest of their lives. … That they often do not even reach it is apparent to many parents and to most educators. … The very emphasis on reading readiness and on the methods employed to teach children the rudiments of reading has meant that the other, the higher, levels of reading have tended to be slighted.

STAGES AND LEVELS

We have described four levels of reading, and we have also outlined four stages of learning to read in an elementary fashion. What is the relation between these stages and levels?

It is of paramount importance to recognize that the four stages outlined here are all stages of the first level of reading as outlined in the previous chapter.

We mention all this because it is highly germane to the message of this book. We assume that you, our reader, have mastered the elementary level of reading, which means that you have passed successfully through the four stages described.

The difference between aided and unaided discovery comes into play here. Typically, the four stages of elementary reading are attained with the help of living teachers. … Only when he has mastered all of the four stages of elementary reading is the child prepared to move on to the higher levels of reading. Only then can he read independently and learn on his own. Only then can he begin to become a really good reader.

HIGHER LEVELS OF READING AND HIGHER EDUCATION

Traditionally the high schools of America have provided little reading instruction for their students, and the colleges have provided none. … they are not designed to take the student beyond the first level or to introduce him to the kinds and levels of reading that are the main subject of this book.

This, of course, should not be the case. A good liberal arts high school, if it does nothing else, ought to produce graduates who are competent analytical readers. A good college, if it does nothing else, ought to produce competent syntopical readers. … Often, however, three or four years of graduate study are required before students attain this level of reading ability, and they do not always attain it even then.

One should not have to spend four years in graduate school in order to learn how to read. … that adds up to twenty full years of schooling. It should not take that long to learn to read.

What is wrong can be corrected. Courses could be instituted in many high schools and colleges that are based on the program described in this book. There is nothing arcane or even really new about what we have to propose. It is largely common sense.

Chapter 2 – The Levels of Reading

  1. THE LEVELS OF READING

There are four levels of reading

The first level of reading we will call Elementary Reading

At this level of reading, the question asked of the reader is “What does the sentence say?”

The attainment of the skills of elementary reading occurred some time ago for almost all who read this book.  Nevertheless, we continue to experience the problems of this level of reading, … for example, whenever we come upon something we want to read that is written in a foreign language

The second level of reading we will call Inspectional Reading. It is characterized by its special emphasis on time.

Inspectional reading is the art of skimming systematically

Whereas the question that is asked at the first level is “What does the sentence say?” the question typically asked at this level is “What is the book about?” … “What is the structure of the book?” or “What are its parts?”

We do want to stress, however, that most people, even many quite good readers, are unaware of the value of inspectional reading. They start a good book on page one and plow steadily through it.  They are thus faced with the task of achieving superficial knowledge of the book at the same time that they are trying to understand it. That compounds the difficulty.

The third level of reading we will call Analytical Reading.

If inspectional reading is the best and most complete reading that is possible given a limited time, then analytical reading is the best and most complete reading that is possible given unlimited time.

Francis Bacon once remarked that “some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.” Reading a book analytically is chewing and digesting it.

Analytical reading is hardly ever necessary if your goal in reading is simply information or entertainment. Analytical reading is preeminently for the sake of understanding.

The fourth and highest level of reading we will call Syntopical Reading.

When reading syntopically, the reader reads many books, not just one, and places them in relation to one another and to a subject about which they all revolve. … the syntopical reader is able to construct an analysis of the subject that may not be in any of the books.

Let it suffice for the moment to say that syntopical reading is not an easy art, … The benefits are so great that it is well worth the trouble of learning how to do it.

Chapter 1 – The Activity and Art of Reading

PART ONE: The Dimensions of Reading

  1. THE ACTIVITY AND ART OF READING

This is a book for readers and for those who wish to become readers. It is for those whose main purpose in reading books is to gain increased understanding.

There is some feeling nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it once was. Radio and especially television have taken over many of the functions once served by print … But it may be questioned whether the advent of modern communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.

There is a sense in which we moderns are inundated with facts to the detriment of understanding.

One of the reasons for this situation is that the very media we have mentioned are so designed as to make thinking seem unnecessary (though this is only an appearance) … The viewer is presented with a whole complex of elements – all the way from ingenious rhetoric to carefully selected data and statistics – to make it easy for him to “make up his own mind” with the minimum of difficulty and effort. But the packaging is often done so effectively that the viewer does not make up his own mind at all. Instead, he inserts a packaged opinion into his mind. He then pushes a button and “plays back” the opinion whenever it seems appropriate to do so. He has performed acceptably without having had to think.

ACTIVE READING

When we contrast active with passive reading, our purpose is, first, to call attention to the fact that reading can be more or less active, and second, to point out that the more active the reading the better.

Many people think that, as compared with writing and speaking, which are obviously active undertakings, reading and listening are entirely passive. … On the contrary, the reader or listener is much more like the catcher in a game of baseball.

Catching the ball is just as much an activity as pitching or hitting it. … Both are active, the though the activities are different. If anything is passive, it’s the ball. … The thing that is written and read, like the ball, is the passive object common to the two activities that begin and terminate the process.

The art of catching is the skill of catching every kind of pitch. Similarly, the art of reading is the skill of catching every sort of communication as well as possible.

It is noteworthy that the pitcher and catcher are successful only to the extent that they cooperate. … The writer’s skill and the reader’s skill converge upon a common end.

The is one respect in which the analogy breaks down. The ball is a simple unit. It is either completely caught or not. A piece of writing, however, is a complex object. It can be received more or less completely.

For the moment, it suffices to say that, given the same thing to read, one person reads it better than another, first by reading it more actively, and second, by performing each of the acts involved more skillfully.

THE GOALS OF READING: Reading for Information and Reading for Understanding

Your success in reading is determined by the extent to which you receive everything the writer intended to communicate.

That, of course, is too simple. The reason is that there are two possible relations between your mind the book, not just one.

As you go through the pages, either you understand perfectly everything the author has to say or you do not. If you do, you may have gained information, but you could not have increased your understanding.

Let us take our second alternative. You do not understand the book perfectly. … You know the book has more to say than you understand and hence that it contains something that can increase your understanding.  … What do you do then?

Without external help of any sort, you go to work on the book. With nothing but the power of your own mind, you operate on the symbols before you in such a way that you gradually lift yourself from a state of understanding less to one of understanding more.

The skilled operations that cause this to happen are the various acts that constitute the art of reading.

Here by “learning” is meant understanding more, not remembering more information that has the same degree of intelligibility as other information you already possess.

There is clearly no difficulty of an intellectual sort about gaining new information in the course of reading if the new facts are the of the same sort as those you already know. A person who knows some of the facts of American history and understands them in a certain light can readily acquire by reading, in the first sense, more such facts and understand them in same light.  But suppose he is reading a history that seeks not merely to give him some more facts but also to throw a new and perhaps more revealing light on all the facts he knows. Suppose there is greater understanding available here than he possessed before he started to read. If he can manage to acquire that greater understanding, he is reading in the second sense. He has indeed elevated himself by his activity, though indirectly, of course, the elevation was made possible by the writer who had something to teach him.

In short, we can learn only from our “betters.” We must know who they are and how to learn from them.

The point we want to emphasize here is that this book is about the art of reading for the sake of increased understanding. Fortunately, if you learn to do that, reading for information will usually take care of itself. … Of course, there is still another goal of reading, besides gaining information and understanding, and that is entertainment. However, this book will not be much concerned with reading for entertainment.

READING AS LEARNING: The Difference Between Learning by Instruction and Learning by Discovery

To be informed is to know simply that something is the case. To be enlightened is to know, in addition, what it is all about: why it is the case, what its connections are with other facts, in what respects it is the same, in what respects it is different, and so forth.

This distinction is familiar in terms of the differences between being able to remember something and being able to explain it. … Enlightenment is achieved only when, in addition to knowing what an author says, you know what he means and why he says it.

Being informed is prerequisite to being enlightened. The point, however, is not to stop at being informed.

Montaigne speaks of “an abecedarian ignorance that precedes knowledge, and a doctoral that comes after it”

The avoid the error of assuming that to be widely read and to be well-read are the same thing – we must consider a certain distinction in types of learning.

The difference between learning by instruction and learning by discovery – or, as we would prefer to say, between aided and unaided discovery – is primarily the difference in the materials on which the learner works. When he is being instructed – discovering with the help of a teacher – the learner acts on something communicated to him. … When, however, the learner proceeds without the help of any sort of teacher, the operations of learning are performed on nature or the world rather than on discourse.

The reason why so many people regard thinking as more closely associated with research and unaided discovery than with being taught is that they suppose reading and listening to be relatively effortless. … But it is not true of the more active reading – the effort to understand. No one who has done this sort of reading would say it can be done thoughtlessly.

Preface

PREFACE

How to Read a Book was first published in the early months of 1940.

Why then attempt to recast and rewrite the book for the present generation of readers? (1972)

There has been a shift of interest from the reading of fiction to the reading of nonfiction. The educators of the country have acknowledged that teaching the young to read, in the most elementary sense of that word, is our paramount educational problem.

However, certain things have not changed in the last thirty years. Once constant is that, to achieve all the purposes of reading, the desideratum must be the ability to read different things at different – appropriate – speeds, not everything at the greatest possible speed. As Pascal observed three hundred years ago, “When we read too fast or too slowly, we understand nothing”

Another thing that has not changed, unfortunately, is the failure to carry instruction in reading beyond the elementary level.

Professor James Mursell of Columbia University’s Teachers College wrote an article for the Atlantic Monthly entitled “The Failure of Schools.”

Upt to the fifth and sixth grade, reading, on the whole, is effectively taught and well learned.  To that level we find a steady and general improvement, but beyond it the curves flatten out to a dead level.

[Students] can improve; they need to improve; but they don’t.

To all intents and purposes [the student] remains a sixth-grade reader till well along in college.

If there was a need for How to Read a Book thirty years ago, …, The need is much greater today.

How To Read a Book

How to Read a Book
By: Mortimer J. Adler & Charles Van Doren
© 1940, 1972

The excerpts from this book contain emphasis.  Italics  and CAPS are the Authors’
Bold is mine to call out what I believe to be important points
Underline is mine to identify supportive material that is not necessary to the primary point, but useful in further understanding them

Contents

Preface

PART ONE – The Dimensions of Reading

  1. The Activity and Art of Reading
  2. The Levels of Reading
  3. The First Level of Reading: Elementary Reading
  4. The Second Level of Reading: Inspectional Reading
  5. How to be a Demanding Reader

PART TWO – The Third Level of Reading: Analytical Reading

  1. Pigeonholing a Book
  2. X-Raying a Book
  3. Coming to Terms with an Author
  4. Determining an Author’s Message
  5. Criticizing a Book Fairly
  6. Agreeing or Disagreeing with an Author
  7. Aids to Reading

PART THREE – Approaches to Different Kinds of Reading Matter

  1. How to Read Practical Books
  2. How to Read Imaginative Literature
  3. Suggestions for Reading Stories, Plays, and Poems
  4. How to Read History
  5. How to Read Science and Mathematics
  6. How to Read Philosophy
  7. How to Read Social Science

PART FOUR – The Ultimate Goals of Reading

  1. The Fourth Level of Reading: Syntopical Reading
  2. Reading and the Growth of the Mind

APPENDIX A – A Recommended Reading List

APPENDIX B – Exercises and Tests at the Four Levels of Reading